Volume 7 Supplement 2

Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Annual Scientific Meeting 2011

Open Access

A large cohort of primary familial cryofibrinogenemia originates from the Magdalen Islands

  • P Bégin1, 2,
  • M Picard1, 2,
  • J Paradis1,
  • L Paradis1 and
  • G Leclerc2
Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology20117(Suppl 2):A34

DOI: 10.1186/1710-1492-7-S2-A34

Published: 14 November 2011

Background

Cryofibrinogenemia is a rare disorder that refers to the presence of cold-precipitable proteins in plasma but, unlike cryoglobulinemia, not in serum. It can manifest as vascular occlusion in cold exposed areas. It is most often secondary to various inflammatory disorders, infections or malignancy, but cases of true essential cryofibrinogenemia have been described. To the best of our knowledge only three reports involving families have been published to date, each involving at most three patients.

Our cases

Two apparently unrelated patients presented with painful lesions involving cold-exposed areas that would appear every fall and disappear every spring since childhood. Examination revealed ulcers, livedoid and purple-blue discolorations with crusts and scar tissues involving ears, hips, knees, fingers and toes. Immune and inflammatory workup was unremarkable in both patients except for the presence of cryofibrinogen. Treatment with stanozol and dextran was attempted but symptoms returned during winter season.

As both patients reported kindred with similar symptoms, population register was consulted. Patients were found to have common ancestors originating from the Magdalen islands. Furthermore, 24 more individuals from the same family were found to present similar symptoms upon cold exposure, making this the largest cohort of familial cryofibrinogenemia described to date (figure 1). Transmission appeared to follow a dominant pattern with variable penetrance.
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1186%2F1710-1492-7-S2-A34/MediaObjects/13223_2011_Article_299_Fig1_HTML.jpg
Figure 1

Genetic family tree showing relation between index cases (shown with arrow). Darkened figures indicate subjects reporting symptoms of cryofibrinogenemia.

Conclusion

We report a large cohort of familial essential cryofibrinogenemia originating from the Magdalen Islands. Genetic association studies will be necessary to identify the causal gene.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of medicine, Service of allergy and immunology, Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal
(2)
Department of medicine, Chicoutimi Hospital

References

  1. Wulffraat N, Meyer KJ, Zegers BJ, Kuis W: Familial presence of primary cryofibrinogenaemia, a report of three cases. Br J Rheumatol. 1996, 35 (1): 102-104. 10.1093/rheumatology/35.1.102.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Van Geest AJ, van Dooren-Greebe RJ, Andriessen MP, Blomjous CE, Go IH: Familial primary cryofibrinogenemia. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 1999, 12 (1): 47-50.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Lolin Y, Razis PA, O'Gorman P, Hjelm M, Wierzbicki AS: Transient nephrotic syndrome after anaesthesia resulting from a familial cryofibrinogen precipitating at 35 degrees C. J Med Genet. 1989, 26 (10): 631-636. 10.1136/jmg.26.10.631.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Bégin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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