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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study population

From: Auto-injector needle length may be inadequate to deliver epinephrine intramuscularly in women with confirmed food allergy

Characteristic Total, n = 100 Patients with STMD minimum P value* Patients with STMD maximum P value*
   ≤15.2 mm, n = 68 >15.2 mm, n = 32   ≤15.2 mm, n = 81 >15.2 mm, n = 19  
Age (years), mean (SD) 37 (14) 35 (15) 41 (13) 0.01 36 (14) 42 (14) 0.06
Males, n (%) 31 (31) 31 (45) 0 (0) 0.00001 31 (37) 0 (0) 0.001
Caucasian, n (%) 89 (89) 59 (87) 30 (93) 0.495 71 (88) 18 (95) 0.685
Weight (kg), mean (SD) 76 (19) 73 (19) 83 (18) 0.014 74 (18) 89 (19) 0.003
Height (m), mean (SD) 1.7 (0.1) 1.69 (0.1) 1.64 (0.1) 0.020 1.69 (0.1) 1.64 (0.1) 0.02
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 27 (6) 25 (5) 31 (7) 0.001 26 (5) 33 (8) 0.0001
STMD max (mm), mean (SD) 11 (6) 8 (3) 17 (4) 0.0001 9 (3) 19 (4) 0.0001
STMD min (mm), mean (SD) 13 (7) 9 (3) 21 (6) 0.0001 11 (5) 23 (7) 0.0001
STMD% compression, mean (SD) 11 (10) 11 (10) 18 (10) 0.002 13 (11) 15 (9) 0.41
  1. *P-value calculated by Student’s t test or Chi square test/Fisher’s exact test.
  2. SD: standard deviation; BMI: body mass index; STMDmin: skin-to-muscle depth with minimal pressure; STMDmax: skin-to-muscle depth with maximal pressure.