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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of females in the study

From: Auto-injector needle length may be inadequate to deliver epinephrine intramuscularly in women with confirmed food allergy

Characteristic Total, n = 69 Patients with STMD minimum P value* Patients with STMD maximum P value*
   ≤15.2 mm, n = 37 >15.2 mm, n = 32   ≤15.2 mm, n = 50 >15.2 mm, n = 19  
Age (years), mean (SD) 37 (13) 33 (12) 41 (13) 0.009 35 (12) 43 (14) 0.03
Caucasian, n (%) 61 (88) 31 (82) 30 (94) 0.27 43 (86) 18 (95) 0.29
Weight (kg), mean (SD) 73 (17) 64 (12) 83 (18) 0.001 67 (12) 89 (19) 0.001
Height (m), mean (SD) 1.6 (0.1) 1.62 (0.1) 1.64 (0.1) 0.16 1.63 (0.1) 1.64 (0.1) 0.71
BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 27 (7) 24 (4) 31 (7) 0.0001 25 (4) 33 (8) 0.001
STMD max (mm), mean (SD) 13 (5) 10 (2) 17 (4) 0.0001 11 (3) 20 (4) 0.0001
STMD min (mm), mean (SD) 16 (7) 11 (2) 21 (6) 0.0001 13 (4) 23 (7) 0.0001
STMD% compression, mean (SD) 16 (11) 14 (11) 18 (10) 0.11 16 (11) 15 (9) 0.53
  1. *P-value calculated by Student’s t test or Chi square test/Fisher’s exact test.
  2. SD: standard deviation; BMI: body mass index; STMDmin: skin-to-muscle depth with minimal pressure; STMDmax: skin-to-muscle depth with maximal pressure.