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Table 2 Summary of effects of PALMs on cells of the innate and adoptive immune system

From: Pollen allergens do not come alone: pollen associated lipid mediators (PALMS) shift the human immue systems towards a TH2-dominated response

PMN Eosinophils Dendritic cells
Chemotaxis* Chemotaxis# IL-12¶↓
Calcium influx*   TH2 bias in MLR
CD11b*↑ CD11b#↑ cAMPi§↑
Release of MPO* Release of ECP↑# CXCR4§↑
   CCR5, CCR1§↓
   CCL22§↑
   CXCL10, CCL5↓§
  1. Arrows indicate an increase (↑) or decrease (↓).
  2. References: *: Traidl-Hoffmann C et al., J Allergy Clin Immunol (2002); #: Plötz SG et al., J Allergy Clin Immunol (2004); : Traidl-Hoffmann C et al., J Exp Med (2005); §: Mariani V et al., J Immunol (2007)
  3. cAMPi = intracellular cyclic 5'-adenosine monophosphate; ECP = eosinophil cationic protein; MLR = mixed lymphocyte reaction.