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Table 3 The association of asthma device use with demographic and clinical characteristics

From: Improper inhaler technique is associated with poor asthma control and frequent emergency department visits

Characteristics Levels Improper 203 (45%) Proper 247 (55%) P-value
Gender Female 123(44.9) 151(55.1) 0.9066
Age ≥ 45 Years 82(49.7) 83(50.3) 0.1369
Follow up with doctor Yes 94(34.8) 176(65.2) 0.0001*
  No 109(60.9) 70(39.1)  
Educational level High school or less 173(44.7) 214(55.3) 0.5884
Education about medication Yes 103(38.7) 163(61.3) 0.0009*
  No 100(54.6) 83(45.4)  
Education about asthma Yes 71(32.7) 146(67.3) 0.0001*
  No 132(56.9) 100(43.1)  
ACT Uncontrolled 62(59.1) 43(41.0) 0.0010*
Full/Partially controlled 140(40.8) 203(59.2)  
ED visits ≥ 3 84(50.9) 81(49.1) 0.0497*
  < 3 114(41.3) 162(58.7)  
Duration of asthma >1 Year 188(43.8) 241(56.2) 0.0046*
  ≤1 Year 14(77.8) 4(22.2)  
Received health education about asthma disease from a physician    
  Yes 60(30.0) 140(70.0) 0.0001*
  No 143(57.4) 106(42.6)  
Received health education about asthma disease from a health educator    
  Yes 14(40.0) 21(60.0) 0.5188
  No 189(45.7) 225(54.4)  
Received health education about asthma disease from a pharmacist    
  Yes 6(28.6) 15(71.4) 0.1166
  No 197(46.0) 231(54.0)  
Knew about asthma disease independently    
  Yes 11(40.7) 16(59.3) 0.6302
  No 192(45.5) 230(54.5)  
Device MDI 189(45.7) 225(54.4) 0.6958
  Turbuhaler 6(46.2) 7(53.9)  
  MDI with spacer 6(31.9) 13(68.4)  
  Diskus 2(50.0) 2(50.0)  
  1. *The Chi-square/Fisher exact statistic is significant at the .05 level.