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Table 1 Common causes of rhabdomyolysis

From: Post-vaccination myositis and myocarditis in a previously healthy male

Category Example
Autoimmune diseases Dermatomyositis and polymyositis
Drugs and toxins Numerous: including alcohol, cocaine, heroin, fibrates and statins
Electrolyte disorders Hypokalemia, hypernatremia, hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hyperosmolarity, ketoacidosis
Endocrine disorders Hypothyroidism, hyperaldosteronism
Excessive muscle activity Alcohol withdrawal, exercise, seizures
Genetic disorders Numerous: including disorders of glycolysis, glycogenolysis, lipid metabolism, mitochondrial pathways and nucleotide metabolism
Hypoxia Prolonged immobilization, artery occlusion
 Infections Viral (coxsackievirus, Epstein–Barr virus, herpes viruses, HIV, influenza A and B)
Bacterial (Clostridium spp., F. tularensis, L. pneumophilia, Salmonella spp., S. pyogenes, S. aureus)
Parasitic (malaria)
 Temperature Heatstroke, malignant hyperthermia, malignant neuroleptic syndrome, hypothermia
 Trauma and compression Crush injury syndrome, electrical injury