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Table 3 Factors potentially associated with impairment in main activity performance (WPAI + CIQ:AS) according to the bivariate and simple regression models

From: Reduced work/academic performance and quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis and impact of allergen immunotherapy

Factors Dimensions of the main activity performance (WPAI+CIQ:AS)
Work productivity Academic productivity Daily activities
n Bivariate analysis Simple regression n Bivariate analysis Simple regression n Bivariate analysis Simple regression
Mean score SD P value* Beta coefficient Mean score SD P value* Beta coefficient Mean score SD P value* Beta coefficient
Age (years)                
 <35 240 22.75 25.53 0.078 Excluded 144 23.03 26.89 0.022 −0.464 371 23.29 24.19 0.106  
 ≥35 237 19.18 23.61 27 11.38 19.49 263 20.27 22.86  
Sex                
 Male 248 18.65 23.56 0.022 Excluded 68 19.07 25.17 0.361   305 19.34 22.44 0.004 3.415
 Female 229 23.49 25.57 103 22.59 26.82   329 24.53 24.54
Educational level                
 Basic literacy 6 32.78 33.96 0.044 −5.951 2 20 28.28 0.998   8 20 19.27 0.297  
 Primary level 48 28.14 26.9 6 20.07 29.41   63 25.71 23.94  
 Secondary level 188 22.34 25.53 90 20.73 25.5   270 22.33 23.55  
 Completed university 226 18.13 22.66 70 20.57 25.82   284 20.77 23.48  
Duration of AR (years)                
 < 9 230 20.05 24.01 0.656   108 21.88 26.99 0.589   330 20.09 22.7 0.061 Excluded
 ≥ 9 243 21.58 25.07   62 19.84 25.01   300 24.03 24.52
Number of visits to allergist                
 <3 263 23.17 24.76 0.009 Excluded 102 23.14 26.46 0.231   357 24.06 23.81 0.005 Excluded
 ≥3 209 18.46 24.46 68 18.57 25.72   270 19.48 23.35
Type of AR                
 Intermittent 133 11.78 18.36 0.000 5.960 53 10.09 17.05 0.000 17.609 182 12.58 16.4 0.000 9.127
Persistent 344 24.53 25.83 116 26.45 28.13 450 25.91 25.09
VALERO severity                
 Mild 63 9.8 17.86 0.000 8.359 19 10.35 19.31 0.003 Excluded 84 8.69 14.29 0.000 5.656
 Moderate 262 17.92 21.56 110 19.26 25.13 353 21.22 22.28
 Severe 152 30.86 28.5    42 31.13 28.8    197 29.19 26.52
Current AIT                
 No 110 30.6 25.7 0.000 −9.907 36 31.94 28.34 0.002 −12.421 141 35.67 25.17 0.000 −15.575
 Yes 357 18 23.58 132 18.43 25.08 480 17.92 21.76
  1. “Excluded” are the factors discarded by the regression model as potentially associated with productivity impairment.Mean overall scores of the WPAI + CIQ:AS questionnaire are expressed as percentages of impairment and productivity loss
  2. Significance values are in italics
  3. AIT allergen immunotherapy, AR allergic rhinitis, SD standard deviation, WPAI + CIQ:AS Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire plus Classroom Impairment Questions: Allergy Specific
  4. * P-value for the bivariate analysis was calculated using Mann–Whitney or Kruskal–Wallis tests for independent samples, with a confidence interval of 95 %