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Table 1 Comorbid conditions that complicate asthma phenotyping [33, 34]

From: Asthma biomarkers in the age of biologics

Allergies
Rhinosinusitis
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
Obstructive sleep apnea
Smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke
Obesity
Hormonal influence
Viruses and bacteria
Occupational exposure
Vocal cord dysfunction
Food
Osteopenia and osteoporosis
Psychological problems (e.g., anxiety ± hyperventilation)
Churg-Strauss disease
Pregnancy
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Eczema
Infections and vaccination
Bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction
Endocrine factors
Conjunctivitis
Congestive heart failure
Pulmonary embolism
Medications
Primary ciliary dyskinesia