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Table 3 Currently used asthma biomarkers

From: Asthma biomarkers in the age of biologics

Biomarker Testing method Phenotype Role in allergic pathway Associated cytokines Associated biologic agents
IgE Serum Allergic (early onset) Binds to FcεRI on mast cells, basophils, and antigen-presenting dendritic cells
Activates the release of inflammatory mediators
IL-4, IL-13 Omalizumab
Eosinophil Blood, sputum Eosinophilic (late onset)—allergic and non-allergic Modulates the immune response
Promotes airway hyperresponsiveness and remodelling
IL-5 Mepolizumab, reslizumab, benralizumab
IL-4, IL-13 Dupilumab
Neutrophil Sputum Neutrophilic Significantly associated with severe asthma
Accumulates in the airways
Prominent in airway secretions during exacerbations
IL-8, IL-17  
 Periostin Serum, sputum Eosinophilic Regulates eosinophil recruitment and eosinophilic tissue infiltration
Active in Th2 mucosal inflammation, airway remodelling, and expression of inflammatory mediators
IL-4, IL-13 Lebrikizumab, tralokinumab, omalizumab
 DPP-4 Serum Eosinophilic, AERD Stimulates the proliferation of bronchial smooth muscle cells and human fetal lung fibroblasts
Promotes fibronectin production
IL-13 Tralokinumab
  1. DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, IgE immunoglobulin E, IL interleukin