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Table 5 Differential diagnosis of recurrent respiratory symptoms in children [31, 36]

From: Asthma

Infections Congenital problems
• Recurrent respiratory tract infections
• Chronic rhino-sinusitis
• Tuberculosis
• Tracheomalacia
• Tracheo-esophageal fistula
• Cystic fibrosis
• Bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Mechanical problems
• Foreign body aspiration
• Gastroesophageal reflux
• Vocal cord dysfunction
• Congenital malformation causing narrowing of the intrathoracic airways
• Primary ciliary dyskinesia syndrome
• Immune deficiency
• Congenital heart disease