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Table 1 Overview of the relative effectiveness of treatment classes used in the management of AR: assessment of effectiveness in controlling symptoms of AR

From: The complex pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis: scientific rationale for the development of an alternative treatment option

Symptom Leukotriene antagonist Oral antihistamine Intranasal antihistamine Intranasal corticosteroid
Nasal congestion + ± + ++
Nasal pruritus + + + +
Rhinorrhoea + + + ++
Sneezing + + ++ ++
Ocular itching ± ± ++ +
Ocular watering ± ± ++ +
Ocular redness ± ± ++ +
  1. Informed by allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma (ARIA) guidelines [5] and Carr et al. [91]
  2. AR allergic rhinitis
  3. ++: especially effective, +: effective, ±: mixed efficacy