Skip to main content

Table 3 Adjusted associations between maternal diet before and during pregnancy and risk of wheezing in the child by the age of 3

From: Maternal diet before and during pregnancy and risk of asthma and allergic rhinitis in children

Food category During the year before pregnancy During the last 3 months of pregnancy
OR (95% CI)a P-value OR (95% CI)a P-value
Wheezing
 Meats
  Moderate vs. low 1.28 (0.92–1.78) 0.14 1.36 (0.99–1.88) 0.06
  High vs. low 1.60 (1.15–2.22) 0.006 1.39 (1.01–1.92) 0.04
Asthma
 Cooked green vegetables
  Moderate vs. low 0.60 (0.34–1.03) 0.06 0.79 (0.45–1.36) 0.39
  High vs. low 0.73 (0.43–1.26) 0.26 0.89 (0.51–1.57) 0.69
Allergic rhinitis
 Eggs
  Moderate vs. low 0.68 (0.44–1.04) 0.07 0.56 (0.33–0.93) 0.03
  High vs. low 0.68 (0.42–1.09) 0.11 0.71 (0.43–1.18) 0.19
 Raw vegetables
  Moderate vs. low 0.68 (0.43–1.07) 0.09 0.44 (0.26–0.74) 0.002
  High vs. low 0.62 (0.40–0.98) 0.04 0.49 (0.29–0.82) 0.007
 Grains
  Moderate vs. low 0.54 (0.33–0.88) 0.01 1.32 (0.80–2.18) 0.28
  High vs. low 0.77 (0.49–1.22) 0.26 0.95 (0.55–1.63) 0.85
 Cooked green vegetables
  Moderate vs. low 1.02 (0.64–1.63) 0.94 0.61 (0.37–1.00) 0.05
  High vs. low 1.05 (0.65–1.69) 0.86 0.56 (0.33–0.97) 0.04
 Meats
  Moderate vs. low 1.77 (1.09–2.90) 0.02 1.00 (0.60–1.67) 0.99
  High vs. low 1.63 (1.00–2.67) 0.05 0.98 (0.50–1.42) 0.49
Atopic dermatitis
 Meats
  Moderate vs. low 1.02 (0.75–1.39) 0.90 0.90 (0.64–1.25) 0.53
  High vs. low 1.33 (0.98–1.81) 0.07 1.09 (0.77–1.53) 0.64
  1. OR odds ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval
  2. aAdjusted for maternal age, maternal pre-pregnancy mother’s BMI, mother’s active smoking before and during pregnancy, child’s exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ages 0 to 3 years), humidity in the home (ages 0 to 3 years), maternal atopy, child’s sex, birth season, birth weight, exclusive breastfeeding ≥ 4 months, number of older siblings, mother’s education, household income, supplementation before and during pregnancy, and total daily energy intake (before or during pregnancy)