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Table 1 Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics by gender

From: Gender differences in asthma perception and its impact on quality of life: a post hoc analysis of the PROXIMA (Patient Reported Outcomes and Xolair® In the Management of Asthma) study

  Cross-sectional population (N = 357) p-value* Longitudinal population (N = 99) p-value*
Females (N = 232, 65.0%) Males (N = 125, 35.0%) Females (N = 62, 62.6%) Males (N = 37, 37.4%)
Age (years) 52.3 (40.2–61.9) 50.2 (38.1–64.5) 0.648 52.3 (11.9) 51.0 (15.8) 0.640
Smoking habits (n (%))
 Current smoker 17 (7.3) 8 (6.4) 0.430 3 (4.8) 2 (5.4) 0.795
 Former smoker 39 (16.8) 28 (22.4)   10 (16.1) 8 (21.6)  
Menopausal status (n (%)) 114 (49.1)    32 (51.6)   
Comorbidities (n (%))
 ≥ 1 138 (59.5) 70 (56.0) 0.524 38 (61.3) 27 (73.0) 0.236
 Cardiovascular disease 48 (20.7) 26 (20.8) 0.980 13 (21.0) 5 (13.5) 0.352
 Chronic rhinitis 35 (15.1) 17 (13.6) 0.704 11 (17.7) 5 (13.5) 0.580
 Chronic sinusitis/rhinosinusitis 22 (9.5) 15 (12.0) 0.457 11 (17.7) 8 (21.6) 0.635
 GERD 38 (16.4) 13 (10.4) 0.124 8 (12.9) 6 (16.2) 0.647
 Hormonal disturbances 27 (11.6) 16 (12.8) 0.748 8 (12.9) 4 (10.8) 1.000
 Nasal polyps 16 (6.9) 11 (8.8) 0.516 8 (12.9) 7 (18.9) 0.419
 Obesity 19 (8.2) 4 (3.2) 0.067 5 (8.1) 0 (0.0) 0.154
 Psychiatric disordersa 14 (6.0) 3 (2.4) 0.124 4 (6.5) 1 (2.7) 0.648
Asthma history
 Duration (years) 14.8 (5.7–26.8) n = 226 15.2 (5.3–29.8) n = 121 0.849 16.6 (8.1–29.2) n = 60 14.6 (5.0–26.3) n = 36 0.280
 Age at diagnosis (years) 33.6 (20.9–44.5) n = 226 31.1 (14.7–44.6) n = 121 0.199 32.1 (15.7) n = 60 34.1 (15.6) n = 36 0.555
 No of asthma exacerbations in the last 12 months 2.0 (1.0–4.0) n = 213 2.0 (1.0–4.0) n = 117 0.366 4.0 (2.0–6.0) n = 60 4.0 (2.0–6.0) n = 35 0.425
  ≥ 1 exacerbation in the 12 months before baseline (n (%)) 191 (89.7) n = 213 98 (83.8) n = 117 0.119 58 (96.7) n = 60 34 (97.1) n = 35 1.000
 FEV1 (L) 1.8 (1.2–2.2) n = 223 2.3 (1.7–3.0) n = 119 <0.0001 1.4 (1.1–1.8) n = 61 2.1 (1.4–2.6) n = 36 0.001
 Serum IgE (IU/mL) 216.0 (101.0–525.0) n = 164 294.0 (150.5–629.0) n = 88 0.054 238.0 (123.8–499.0) n = 60 294.0 (168.0–540.0) n = 37 0.399
  1. Mean (SD) were showed for continuous, normally distributed variables and comparisons between groups were performed with parametric Student’s t test. In case of not normally distributed parameters, median (IQR) were provided and males were compared to females by means of non- parametric Wilcoxon rank sum test
  2. If not otherwise specified, number of analyzed patients is reported in table heading
  3. GERD Gastroesophageal reflux
  4. aAnxiety, depression, behavioral disorders
  5. *Student’s t test or Wilcoxon rank sum test p-values were showed for numerical variables; Chi square or Fisher exact test p-values were showed for categorical ones. Statistically significant p-values are in italic