
Crosssectional population
(N = 357)

pvalue*

Longitudinal population
(N = 99)

pvalue*


Females
(N = 232, 65.0%)

Males
(N = 125, 35.0%)

Females
(N = 62, 62.6%)

Males
(N = 37, 37.4%)


Age (years)

52.3 (40.2–61.9)

50.2 (38.1–64.5)

0.648

52.3 (11.9)

51.0 (15.8)

0.640

Smoking habits (n (%))

Current smoker

17 (7.3)

8 (6.4)

0.430

3 (4.8)

2 (5.4)

0.795

Former smoker

39 (16.8)

28 (22.4)
 
10 (16.1)

8 (21.6)
 
Menopausal status (n (%))

114 (49.1)
  
32 (51.6)
  
Comorbidities (n (%))

≥ 1

138 (59.5)

70 (56.0)

0.524

38 (61.3)

27 (73.0)

0.236

Cardiovascular disease

48 (20.7)

26 (20.8)

0.980

13 (21.0)

5 (13.5)

0.352

Chronic rhinitis

35 (15.1)

17 (13.6)

0.704

11 (17.7)

5 (13.5)

0.580

Chronic sinusitis/rhinosinusitis

22 (9.5)

15 (12.0)

0.457

11 (17.7)

8 (21.6)

0.635

GERD

38 (16.4)

13 (10.4)

0.124

8 (12.9)

6 (16.2)

0.647

Hormonal disturbances

27 (11.6)

16 (12.8)

0.748

8 (12.9)

4 (10.8)

1.000

Nasal polyps

16 (6.9)

11 (8.8)

0.516

8 (12.9)

7 (18.9)

0.419

Obesity

19 (8.2)

4 (3.2)

0.067

5 (8.1)

0 (0.0)

0.154

Psychiatric disorders^{a}

14 (6.0)

3 (2.4)

0.124

4 (6.5)

1 (2.7)

0.648

Asthma history

Duration (years)

14.8 (5.7–26.8)

n = 226

15.2 (5.3–29.8)

n = 121

0.849

16.6 (8.1–29.2)

n = 60

14.6 (5.0–26.3)

n = 36

0.280

Age at diagnosis (years)

33.6 (20.9–44.5)

n = 226

31.1 (14.7–44.6)

n = 121

0.199

32.1 (15.7)

n = 60

34.1 (15.6)

n = 36

0.555

No of asthma exacerbations in the last 12 months

2.0 (1.0–4.0)

n = 213

2.0 (1.0–4.0)

n = 117

0.366

4.0 (2.0–6.0)

n = 60

4.0 (2.0–6.0)

n = 35

0.425

≥ 1 exacerbation in the 12 months before baseline (n (%))

191 (89.7)

n = 213

98 (83.8)

n = 117

0.119

58 (96.7)

n = 60

34 (97.1)

n = 35

1.000

FEV1 (L)

1.8 (1.2–2.2)

n = 223

2.3 (1.7–3.0)

n = 119

< 0.0001

1.4 (1.1–1.8)

n = 61

2.1 (1.4–2.6)

n = 36

0.001

Serum IgE (IU/mL)

216.0 (101.0–525.0)

n = 164

294.0 (150.5–629.0)

n = 88

0.054

238.0 (123.8–499.0)

n = 60

294.0 (168.0–540.0)

n = 37

0.399

 Mean (SD) were showed for continuous, normally distributed variables and comparisons between groups were performed with parametric Student’s t test. In case of not normally distributed parameters, median (IQR) were provided and males were compared to females by means of non parametric Wilcoxon rank sum test
 If not otherwise specified, number of analyzed patients is reported in table heading
 GERD Gastroesophageal reflux
 ^{a}Anxiety, depression, behavioral disorders
 *Student’s t test or Wilcoxon rank sum test pvalues were showed for numerical variables; Chi square or Fisher exact test pvalues were showed for categorical ones. Statistically significant pvalues are in italic