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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and relative frequency of Ascariasis in children with rhinitis and healthy controls

From: Exposure to Toxocara spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides infections and risk of allergic rhinitis in children

Variable Children with rhinitis (n = 81) Children without rhinitis (n = 101) P-value OR crude (95% CI)
Number (%) Infected (%) Number (%) Infected (%)
Sex
 Male 44 (54.3) 6 (13.6) 57 (56.4) 2 (3.5) 0.77 1
 Female 37 (45.7) 4 (10.8) 44 (54.3) 2 (4.5)   1.09 (0.61–1.96)
Age
 < 6 26 (32.1) 3 (11.5) 49 (48.5) 1 (2.0) 0.025 1
 > 6 55 (67.9) 7 (12.7) 52 (51.5) 3 (5.8)   1.99 (1.09–3.66)
Residence
 Urban 58 (71.6) 7 (12.1) 52 (51.5) 1 (1.9) 0.006 2.38 (1.28–4.42)
 Rural 23 (28.4) 3 (13.0) 49 (48.5) 3 (6.1)   1
Family income
 < 1500,000 T 56 (69.1) 7 (12.5) 73 (72.3) 3 (4.1) 0.64 1
 ≥ 1500,000 T 25 (30.9) 3 (12.0) 28 (27.7) 1 (3.6)   1.16 (0.61–2.21)
Dog contact
 No 76 (93.8) 8 (10.5) 88 (87.1) 4 (4.5) 0.13 1
 Yes 5 (6.2) 2 (40.0) 13 (12.9) 0 (0.0)   0.45 (0.15–1.31)
Cat contact
 No 78 (96.3) 10 (12.8) 98 (97.0) 4 (4.1) 0.78 1
 Yes 3 (3.7) 0 (0.0) 3 (3.0) 0 (0.0)   1.26 (0.25–6.40)
Frequent contact with the soil
 No 67 (82.7) 4 (6.0) 89 (88.1) 1 (1.1) 0.3 1
 Yes 14 (17.3) 6 (42.9) 12 (11.9) 3 (25.0)   1.55 (0.67–3.57)
Eating unwashed vegetable
 No 77 (95.1) 6 (12.3) 95 (94.1) 4 (4.2) 0.77 1
 Yes 4 (4.9) 4 (100.0) 6 (5.9) 0 (0.0)   0.82 (0.22–3.02)
Parents education
 Diploma and less 37 (45.7) 5 (13.5) 80 (79.2) 2 (2.5) < 0.001 1
 College and above 44 (54.3) 5 (11.4) 21 (20.8) 2 (9.5)   4.53 (2.37–8.68)
Mother’s occupation
 Employed 21 (25.9) 4 (19.0) 7 (6.9) 1 (14.3) < 0.001 4.70 (1.88–11.73)
 Housewife 60 (74.1) 6 (10.0 94 (93.1) 3 (3.2)   1
Father’s occupation
 Government employment and other 79 (97.5) 9 (11.4) 93 (92.1) 4 (4.3) 0.11 1
 Agricultural activities 2 (2.5) 1 (50.0) 8 (7.9) 0 (0.0)   0.29 (0.06–1.43)
Water source
 Treated 67 (82.7) 6 (9.0) 89 (88.1) 2 (2.2) 0.3 1
 Untreated 14 (17.3) 4 (28.6) 12 (11.9) 2 (16.7)   1.55 (0.67–3.56)
Family atopic history
 Yes 35 (43.2) 5 (14.3) 5 (5.0) 1 (20.0) < 0.001 14.60 (5.37–39.7)
 No 46 (56.8) 5 (10.9) 96 (95.0) 3 (3.1)   1
Parents smoking
 Yes 70 (86.4) 7 (10.0) 65 (64.4) 4 (4.6)   3.52 (1.65–7.50)
 No 11 (13.6) 3 (27.3) 36 (35.6) 0 (0.0) < 0.001 1
  1. Statistically significant