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Table 3 Previous case–control studies evaluating the role of Ascariasis and Toxocariasis in development of allergic rhinitis

From: Exposure to Toxocara spp. and Ascaris lumbricoides infections and risk of allergic rhinitis in children

Parasitic infection Country/type of participants Diagnostic antibody Cases Controls Adjusted OR (95% CI) P value
Author/references Number Infected, N (%) Number Infected, N (%)
Ascariasis
 Zakzuk et al.  [22] Colombia/Rural population/all age Sera/Specific IgE 89 50 (56.2) 146 58 (39.7) 2.04 (1.14–3.65) 0.02
 Zakzuk et al.  [22] Colombia/Rural population/all age Skin prick tests 90 22 (24.4) 153 19 (12.4) 2.21 (1.07–4.56) 0.03
 Mohammed Abdalla et al. [21] Egypt/children Sera/Specific IgE 139 26 (18.7) 70 7 (10) Not determined 0.01
Toxocariasis
 Yariktas et al. [30] Turkey/all age Sera/Specific IgG 64 18 (28.1) 61 7 (11.5) Not determined 0.02
 Yariktas et al. [30] Turkey/all age Sera/Specific IgE 64 11 (17.2) 61 2 (3.3) Not determined 0.01
 Manuel et al. [19] Malaysia/all age Sera/Specific IgG 85 14 (16.5) 85 32 (37.6) Not determined 0.002
Negative association
 Arashi et al.  [20] Iran/all age Sera/Specific IgG 93 5 (5.4) 87 3 (3.4) Not determined 0.39
 Mohammed Abdalla et al. [21] Egypt/children Sera/Specific IgG 139 25 (18) 70 5 (7.1) Not determined 0.01