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Table 1 Pharmacokinetic studies of epinephrine, 0.3 or 0.5 mg, and syringe and needle. Comparison of injection in the middle part of the antero-lateral (m a-l) area of the thigh

From: The pharmacokinetics of epinephrine/adrenaline autoinjectors

Subject\Study Simons et al. Duvauchelle et al. [11] Worm et al. [12]
1998 [8] 2001 [9]   Low STMD
 < 15 mm
Middle STMD
15–20 mm
High STMD
> 20 mm
Number of pat. 9 13 18 18 12 12 11
Needle length ? ? 25.4 mm 25.4 mm 19.4 (12–30) 27.9 (2–40) 39.1 (30–40)
Gender Children Male, adults Male, adults Male, adults M = 6; F = 6 M = 6; F = 6 M = 5; F = 6
Weight kg, Mean ± S.D./range 32 ± 3; 19.1–34.5 85 ± 5; 62–114 75 ± 10.5 75 ± 10.5 M/F 103.5/63.6 M/F 107.7/83.3 M/F 122.4/85.0
BMI kg/m2 36.6 ± 4.6; 20–64 23.3 ± 1.9; 18–26 23.3 ± 1.9; 18–26 M/F 32,4/21.3 M/F 32.2/28.1 M/F 36./31.4
Age years 8 ± 1; 4–12 18–35 31.5 ± 9.2 31.5 ± 9.2 M/F 36.2/46.0 M/F 34.5/38.8 M/F32.8/39.0
Site ? Thigh, m a-l Thigh, m a-l Thigh, m a-l Thigh, m a-l Thigh, m a-l Thigh, m a-l
Route s.c.a i.m.a i.m.a i.m.a i.m. i.m. i.m.
Dose. mg 0.27 ± 0.04b 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.3
Plasma level analyzes hours 3 h 3 h 6 h 6 h 6 h 6 h 6 h
Tmax 1, min. 34 ± 14 (5c–120) 10 11 ± 9; 5d 10 ± 8; 5d 40 (25–60) 45 (3–60) 50 (6–60)
Tmax 2, min. ≈ 40e ?f ≈ 50d ≈ 50d
Cmax 1 pg/ml 1802 ± 214 9722 ± 4.801 222.6 ± 185 401.2 ± 267 M/F 250/360 M/F 310/320 M/F 270/510
Cmax 2 pg/ml ≈ 800e ≈ 1100f 402.2 ± 208 578 ± 251
No of Cmax 2? 1? 2 2 2 2 2
AUC0-20 h*pg/ml   38.5 ± 33.7 75.9 ± 52.6 * * *
AUCinf h*pg/ml 6103 ± 13*103   503.3 ± 201 777.2 ± 313 M/F 201/288 M/F 257/281 M/F 226/306
  1. aIntended localization of the bolus; b0.01 mg/kg, max 0.3 mg. 6/9 children received 0.3 mg, 1/9 children received 0.2, 1/9 0.23 and 1/9 0.24 mg ephedrine; cIn the s.c. group, 2/9 children and in the i.m. group, 6/8 children showed a Tmax at 5 min. [8]; d Estimated from Figure 3 in [11]; e Estimated from Figure 1 in [8]. f According to Figure 1 in [9]
  2. *AUC 6 min and AUC 15 min was measured but data not given