Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of participants with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema, column %

From: Associations of sleep characteristics with atopic disease: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents

Characteristics (N) Asthma
(N = 367)
Allergic rhinitis
(N = 861)
Eczema
(N = 661)
% OR (95% CI)   % OR (95% CI)   % OR (95% CI)  
Demographic characteristics          
 Age (years)          
  < 13 (649) 15.3 0.69 (0.48–0.98) 0.04 13.7 0.88 (0.69–1.13) 0.33 12.4 1.00 (0.75–1.32) 0.98
  13–14 (694) 18.0 0.88 (0.59–1.31) 0.53 15.4 1.07 (0.81–1.41) 0.65 16.7 1.19 (0.87–1.63) 0.28
  14–15 (707) 11.5 1.00 (0.68–1.47) 0.99 14.1 0.91 (0.68–1.21) 0.45 12.6 1.04 (0.75–1.43) 0.82
  15–16 (715) 16.9 0.68 (0.45–1.04) 0.07 13.7 0.94 (0.71–1.25) 0.66 14.3 0.92 (0.66–1.28) 0.61
  16–17 (695) 14.2 1.17 (0.80–1.71) 0.41 15.4 1.12 (0.85–1.49) 0.42 15.6 1.34 (0.98–1.83) 0.07
  ≥17 (1450) 24.0 Ref.   27.7 Ref.   28.4 Ref.  
Gender          
 Boy (2422) 64.4 1.92 (1.53–2.40) < 0.001 54.0 1.25 (1.07–1.45) 0.004 44.4 0.85 (0.72–1.00) 0.05
 Girl (2495) 35.6 Ref.   46.0 Ref.   55.6 Ref.  
Household income (RMBb/person/month)          
 > 3000RMBb (2100) 53 1.60 (1.28–1.99) < 0.001 51.3 1.50 (1.28–1.74) < 0.001 50.5 1.45 (1.22–1.71) < 0.001
3000RMBb (2694) 47 Ref.   48.7 Ref.   49.5 Ref.  
Family structure          
 Single parent family (269) 6.2 1.23 (0.77–1.97) 0.38 6.4 1.22 (0.89–1.69) 0.22 6.0 1.18 (0.82–1.70) 0.37
 Nuclear family (2632) 51.7 Ref.   53.8 Ref.   52.2 Ref.  
 Extended family (1941) 42.1 1.11 (0.89–1.39) 0.36 39.8 1.01 (0.86–1.18) 0.91 41.8 1.09 (0.92–1.30) 0.33
Mother’s educational levels          
 College and above (1713) 47.4 2.71 (1.97–3.73) < 0.001 46.3 2.68 (2.15–3.35) < 0.001 44.2 2.32 (1.82–2.95) < 0.001
 High school (1674) 37.0 2.01 (1.44–2.79) < 0.001 38.3 2.11 (1.68–2.64) < 0.001 38.7 1.93 (1.51–2.46) < 0.001
 Middle school and below (1,218) 15.6 Ref.   15.4 Ref.   17.0 Ref.  
Father’s educational levels          
 College and above (1980) 51.9 2.90 (2.03–4.15) < 0.001 52.1 2.62 (2.07–3.30) < 0.001 50.6 2.30 (1.79–2.96) < 0.001
 High school (1731) 36.8 2.15 (1.49–3.11) < 0.001 35.3 1.85 (1.45–2.35) < 0.001 35.4 1.68 (1.29–2.18) < 0.001
 Middle school and below (1015) 11.3 Ref.   12.6 Ref.   13.9 Ref.  
Obstetrics and parental health characteristics        
 Delivery mode          
 Premature delivery (504) 10.6 1.05 (0.73–1.51) 0.79 11.5 1.12 (0.88–1.43) 0.36 12.7 1.25 (0.96–1.62) 0.10
 Post-term delivery (297) 9.2 1.59 (1.07–2.35) 0.02 7.0 1.19 (0.87–1.67) 0.27 6.5 1.12 (0.79–1.59) 0.53
 Term delivery (3858) 80.2 Ref.   81.5 Ref.   80.7 Ref.  
Feeding pattern          
 Mixed feeding (994) 23.1 1.34 (1.02–1.76) 0.04 25.7 1.51 (1.26–1.82) < 0.001 26.7 1.58 (1.29–1.94) < 0.001
 Artificial feeding (681) 19.1 1.59 (1.18–2.14) 0.002 17.4 1.48 (1.19–1.83) < 0.001 17.0 1.45 (1.14–1.84) 0.002
 Breastfeeding (2991) 57.8 Ref.   56.8 Ref.   56.3 Ref.  
Maternal smoking during gestation          
 Yes (40) 1.7 2.48 (1.00–6.13) 0.05 1.4 2.12 (1.05–4.27) 0.04 0.8 1.16 (0.44–3.05) 0.77
 No (4756) 98.3 Ref.   98.6 Ref.   99.2 Ref.  
Maternal drinking during gestation          
 Drinking (71) 1.7 1.18 (0.50–2.78) 0.70 1.9 1.35 (0.76–2.39) 0.30 1.3 0.88 (0.42–1.88) 0.75
 Non-drinking (4721) 98.3 Ref.   98.1 Ref.   98.8 Ref.  
Mother’s sleep condition during gestation          
 Fair (1354) 27.2 0.98 (0.78–1.23) 0.85 30.3 1.12 (0.96–1.30) 0.16 34.8 1.31 (1.11–1.55) 0.002
 Good (3227) 72.8 Ref.   69.7 Ref.   65.2 Ref.  
Mother’s age at delivery(year)          
 ≥ 30 (644) 19.5 1.99 (1.45–2.73) < 0.001 17.2 1.60 (1.27–2.00) < 0.001 17.2 1.58 (1.23–2.04) < 0.001
 25–29 (1870) 47.5 1.64 (1.28–2.10) < 0.001 45.5 1.43 (1.21–1.69) < 0.001 45.9 1.43 (1.18–1.73) < 0.001
 ≤ 24 (2057) 33.0 Ref.   37.3 Ref.   36.9 Ref.  
Father’s age at delivery          
 ≥ 35 (486) 14.4 2.16 (1.56–2.98) < 0.001 11.6 1.69 (1.34–2.12) < 0.001 13.3 1.71 (1.32–2.21) < 0.001
 25–34 (2971) 76.4 1.79 (1.39–2.30) < 0.001 74.3 1.52 (1.28–1.81) < 0.001 69.7 1.55 (1.28–1.87) < 0.001
 ≤ 24 (1037) 9.2 Ref.   14.1 Ref.   13.2 Ref.  
Biological chronic health problems and activity routine behaviors        
 Overweight/obesity          
 Yes (659) 19.4 1.59 (1.20–2.11) 0.001 17.1 1.36 (1.10–1.67) 0.004 15.5 1.21 (0.95–1.54) 0.12
 No (4009) 80.6 Ref.   82.9 Ref.   84.5 Ref.  
Smoking exposure          
 Yes (1313) 30.5 1.23 (0.97–1.56) 0.08 29.3 1.17 (0.99–1.38) 0.07 29.3 1.16 (0.97–1.40) 0.11
 No (3522) 69.5 Ref.   70.7 Ref.   70.7 Ref.  
Drinking status          
 Current drinking (381) 11.7 1.73 (1.22–2.43) 0.002 10.0 1.45 (1.12–1.87) 0.005 8.3 1.18 (0.87–1.60) 0.29
 Non-drinking (4540) 88.3 Ref.   90.0 Ref.   91.7 Ref.  
Physical activity during weekdays          
 Physically active time < 1 h/day (4049) 68.7 0.95 (0.71–1.26) 0.71 67.8 1.02 (0.84–1.25) 0.84 70.3 0.95 (0.76–1.18) 0.62
 Physically active time ≥ 1 h/day (843) 31.3 Ref.   32.2 Ref.   29.7 Ref.  
Physical activity during weekends          
 Physically active time < 1 h/day (3421) 81.9 0.94 (0.74–1.19) 0.60 83.0 0.90 (0.77–1.06) 0.20 81.9 1.01 (0.84–1.22) 0.90
 Physically active time ≥ 1 h/day (1470) 18.1 Ref.   17.0 Ref.   18.1 Ref.  
  1. aStatistically significant results (p < 0.05) are in italics
  2. bRMB, China’s currency (yuan)