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Table 1 Prevalence of antiganglioside antibodies in celiac disease and other autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases

From: Anti-ganglioside antibodies and celiac disease

Study (reference) Disease Anti-ganglioside antibodies tested Prevalence (%)/clinical significance
Cats EA et al. 2010
(Neurology; 75:1961–1967)
MMN IgG, and IgA antibodies to GM1, GM2, GD1a, GD1b, GM1b, GT1a, GT1b, GQ1b,
IgM: 43%,
IgG: 1%,
IgA: 5%
Lucchetta M et al. 2010
(Muscle Nerve; 41:50–53)
Type 1 Diabetes IgG or IgM antibodies to
GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1b, GD1a, GD3
24% (one or more gangliosides)
Mostafa GA et al. 2011
(J Neuroinflammation; 8:39)
Autistic children Anti-ganglioside M1 74%*
Labrador-Horrillo M et al. 2012
SLE with neuropsychiatric manifestations GM1, GM2, GM3, asialo-GM1 GD1a, GD1b, GD3, GT1b, GQ1b 15% IgM asialo-GM1, 6% positive for other anti-ganglioside antibodies (GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1b, GT1b, GD3, mainly IgM)
Kim JK et al. 2014
(J Clin Neurol; 10:94–100)
GBS IgG and IgM antibodies to gangliosides GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GD3, GT1a, GT1b, and GQ1b 50% positive for IgG or IgM antibodies against various gangliosides
Kollewe K et al. 2015
(PLoSOne; 10:e0125339)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis IgG and IgM antibodies to asialo1 (GA1), GM1, GM2, GD1a, GD1b, GQ1b IgG: 10.7%
IgM: 17.9%
Ge S et al. 2016
(Diabetes Res Clin Pract; 115:68–75)
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy Anti-GS IgM
anti-GS IgG
anti-GS Ab levels positively correlated with DPN
Przybylska-Feluś M et al. 2016
(Pol Arch Med Wewn; 126:763–771)
Celiac disease Anti-GM1 Significantly higher median level of anti-GM1 antibodies than controls§
Saccomanno D et al. 2017
(Scand J Gastroenterol; 52:409–413)
Celiac disease IgM, IgG, and IgA to GM1, GM2, GM3, GD1a, GD1b, GD3, GT1a, GT1b, GQ1b, sulfatide Anti-sulfatide IgG antibodies (36%)
  1. Anti-GS IgM Ab and anti-GS IgG Ab: anti-ganglioside IgM and IgG antibodies, DPN diabetic peripheral neuropathy, GBS Guillain-Barré syndrome, SLE systemic lupus erythematosus, MMN multifocal motor neuropathy
  2. *Serum levels of anti-ganglioside M1 antibodies were significantly higher in autistic children with severe autism (63%) than those with mild to moderate autism (37%), p = 0.001. Moreover, serum anti-ganglioside M1 antibodies had significant positive correlations with Childhood Autism Rating Scale
  3. ^Patients with MMN with anti-GM1 IgM antibodies had more severe weakness (p < 0.01), more disability (p < 0.01), and more axon loss (p = 0.05) than patients without anti-GM1 IgM antibodies. Anti-GM1 IgM antibody titers correlated with Medical Research Council scores (correlation coefficient = 0.43; p < 0.0001). Anti-GD1b IgM antibody activity was associated with reduced vibration sense (p < 0.01)
  4. §1.38 ng/ml [0.98–2.03 ng/ml] vs 0.81 ng/ml [0.35–1.15 ng/ml], (p < 0.001, the Mann–Whitney test)