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Table 2 Comparison of clinical traits between COVID-19 patients with and without asthma (mean ± SD)

From: Pre-existing asthma as a comorbidity does not modify cytokine responses and severity of COVID-19

Clinical features Critical COVID-19 Severe COVID-19 Mild COVID-19
Non-Asthma (n = 16) Asthma (n = 3) P Non-Asthma (n = 26) Asthma (n = 10) P Non-Asthma (n = 22) Asthma (n = 3) P
Age 55 ± 12 70 ± 11 0.077 67 ± 16 56 ± 16 0.066 70 ± 20 37 ± 17 0.014
BMI (kg/cm2) 29.57 ± 7.10 27.52 ± 6.74 0.741 31.45 ± 6.51 28.92 ± 4.63 0.475 24.92 ± 3.50 26.94 ± 1.74 0.465
Gender (M/F) 11/5 3/0 0.530 13/13 7/3 0.456 10/12 1/2 1.000
Ethnicity    0.308    0.622    0.071
 Caucasians 6 (40.0%) 3 (100.0%)   19 (76.0%) 9 (90.0%)   15 (78.9%) 2 (66.7%)  
 Asian 3 (20.0%) 0 (0%)   1 (4.0%) 1 (10.0%)   3 (15.8%) 0 (0%)  
 African 0 (0%) 0 (0%)   3 (12.0%) 0 (0%)   0 (0%) 1 (33.3%)  
 Mediterranean 0 (0%) 0 (0%)   0 (0%) 0 (0%)   0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
 Mixed 1 (6.7%) 0 (0%)   1 (4.0%) 0 (0%)   0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
 Others 5 (33.3%) 0 (0%)   1 (4.0%) 0 (0%)   1 (5.3%) 0 (0%)  
Smoking    1.000    0.304    0.242
 Non-smokers 10 (66.7%) 2 (66.7%)   17 (68.0%) 4 (44.4%)   9 (52.9%) 3 (100.0%)  
 Ex-smokers 5 (33.3%) 1 (33.3%)   7 (28.0%) 5 (55.6%)   8 (47.1%) 0 (0%)  
 Active smokers 0 (0%) 0 (0%)   1 (4.0%) 0 (0%)   0 (0%) 0 (0%)  
Days of symptoms to sampling 12.81 ± 5.41 10.33 ± 3.22 0.459 9.31 ± 5.13 11.60 ± 5.36 0.243 6.86 ± 3.58 13.33 ± 11.15 0.037
Comorbidities
 CCI 1.44 ± 4.07 6.67 ± 2.52 0.049 8.77 ± 10.11 7.60 ± 9.36 0.753 7.32 ± 9.44 4.00 ± 0 0.556
 Hypertension 6 (37.5%) 2 (66.7%) 0.546 14 (53.8%) 3 (30.0%) 0.274 8 (36.4%) 0 (0%) 0.527
 CRD 1 (6.3%) 0 (0.0%) 1.000 6 (23.1%) 1 (10.0%) 0.645
 CCD 1 (6.3%) 1 (33.3%) 0.298 3 (11.5%) 1 (10.0%) 1.000 5 (22.7%) 0 (0%) 1.000
 DM 3 (18.8%) 1 (33.3%) 0.530 15 (57.7%) 3 (30.0%) 0.137 6 (27.3%) 0 (0%) 0.554
 Haemcancer
 Other cancer 1 (4.5%) 0 (0%) 1.000
 Liver diseases 1 (6.3%) 0 (0%) 1.000 0 (0%) 1 (10.0%) 0.278
 Neurological diseases 0 (0%) 1 (10.0%) 0.278
 Kidney diseases 1 (4.5%) 0 (0%) 1.000
 Transplantation
 Rheumatological diseases 1 (4.5%) 0 (0%) 1.000
 Immunosuppression 0 (0%) 1 (33.3%) 0.120
 Stroke/dementia 2 (9.1%) 0 (0%) 1.000
SaO2/FiO2 1.72 ± 0.49 1.83 ± 0.57 0.783 2.65 ± 1.10 2.75 ± 1.30 0.845 4.57 ± 0.10 4.52 ± 0.13 0.569
WBC (×109/L) 9.45 ± 3.54 7.74 ± 2.52 0.441 7.85 ± 3.59 7.54 ± 2.68 0.814 7.58 ± 2.81 5.48 ± 4.32 0.273
Neutrophils (×109/L) 8.06 ± 3.44 6.89 ± 2.41 0.585 6.23 ± 3.48 5.76 ± 2.89 0.723 5.66 ± 2.50 3.67 ± 3.52 0.235
Eosinophils (×109/L) 0.08 ± 0.08 0.08 ± 0.09 0.909 0.03 ± 0.04 0.09 ± 0.10 0.059 0.06 ± 0.06 0.07 ± 0.06 0.711
Lymphocytes (×109/L) 0.93 ± 0.37 0.49 ± 0.15 0.062 1.01 ± 0.43 1.16 ± 0.40 0.387 1.35 ± 0.57 1.12 ± 0.22 0.492
Monocytes (×109/L) 0.39 ± 0.21 0.26 ± 0.21 0.325 0.55 ± 0.32 0.52 ± 0.31 0.761 0.50 ± 0.26 0.63 ± 0.66 0.545
Haemoglobin (g/L) 114.31 ± 22.53 111.33 ± 15.89 0.831 126.09 ± 15.96 126.88 ± 15.01 0.905 126.85 ± 16.54 127.67 ± 6.03 0.935
Platelets (×109/L) 265.31 ± 111.65 234.33 ± 39.51 0.647 292.16 ± 121.19 356.50 ± 90.69 0.163 272.68 ± 98.73 259.67 ± 34.15 0.826
Lactate (mmol/L) (highest) 1.294 ± 0.6567 1.100 ± 0.1000 0.625 1.529 ± 0.4327 0.962 ± 0.2560 0.002 1.520 ± 0.3824 0.900 ± 0.1414 0.053
Bicarbonate (mmol/L) (highest) 24.71 ± 4.04 25.77 ± 2.66 0.673 24.37 ± 3.30 25.64 ± 1.56 0.316 24.88 ± 2.73 23.95 ± 1.48 0.658
CRP (highest) 233.90 ± 156.36 207.93 ± 60.54 0.784 163.73 ± 85.65 106.82 ± 49.61 0.073 74.87 ± 61.52 56.43 ± 30.81 0.622
ALP (highest) 97.81 ± 45.51 69.33 ± 13.58 0.307 103.71 ± 66.26 106.50 ± 93.33 0.929 118.06 ± 92.09 64.00 ± 8.19 0.335
ALT (highest) 66.25 ± 42.61 55.33 ± 17.10 0.673 50.71 ± 42.91 74.89 ± 86.65 0.311 55.56 ± 79.51 32.00 ± 22.11 0.624
d-Dimer (timepoint) 13,585.44 ± 22,511.816 2240.00 ± 0 0.645 2574.86 ± 6268.18 3491.00 ± 5068.18 0.730 9842.67 ± 26,319.981 2738.00 ± 2586.597 0.723
LDH (timepoint) 600.00 ± 79.076 526.00 ± 281.27 315.50 ± 102.19 0.178 433.67 ± 104.45
CK (timepoint) 299.00 ± 450.172 332.64 ± 849.60 116.20 ± 89.85 0.586 211.90 ± 180.90
OS score 0.76 ± 1.19 1.96 ± 0.96 0.122 1.95 ± 1.47 1.04 ± 1.98 0.138 1.81 ± 1.77 − 1.13 ± 1.11 0.011
Vasopressors 14 (87.5%) 3 (100.0%) 1.000 2 (7.7%) 2 (20.0%) 0.305
Days on vasopressors 10.13 ± 8.84 8.00 ± 5.57 0.697 1.25 ± 3.15 2.50 ± 4.36 0.579
RRT 6 (37.5%) 0 (0%) 0.517 1 (3.8%) 1 (10.0%) 0.484
Days on RRT 3.019 ± 5.73 0.88 ± 2.48 0.50 ± 1.00 0.781
Days on ventilation (days) 24.44 ± 11.88 11.67 ± 4.16 0.089 9.13 ± 12.08 7.00 ± 8.45 0.761
Hospital LOS (days) 40.44 ± 20.36 17.67 ± 0.58 0.076 14.42 ± 14.34 10.70 ± 6.78 0.439 7.14 ± 6.72 4.67 ± 3.79 0.544
Mortality 2 (12.5%) 1 (33.3%) 0.422 7 (26.9%) 1 (10.0%) 0.397 2 (9.1%) 0 (0%) 1.000
  1. ALP alkaline phosphatase, ALT alanine transaminase, BMI body mass index, CCD congestive cardiac disease, CCI Charlson comorbidity index, CK Creatine kinase, CRD chronic renal disease, CRP C-reactive protein, DM diabetes mellitus, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, LOS length of stay, NIV non-invasive ventilation, NRM non-rebreather mask, OS score OpenSAFELY score, RA room air, RRT renal replacement therapy, SFM simple face mask, SaO2/FiO2 ratio of arterial oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen, WBC white blood cells