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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Cumulative evidence for association of rhinitis and depression

Study Publication year Study location Study design Sample size Participants Ascertainment of rhinitis Type of rhinitis Diagnosis of rhinitis Ascertainment of depression Depression diagnostic criteria Outcomes Confounding factors Data source
Zhou 2017 United States Cross-sectional 19.1 ± 1.1 million Adults Survey participants self-reported AR NA Survey self-reported NA 1.32 (1.12–1.54) Region, sex, race, income, education, and age 2014 (NHIS)
Yamamoto-Hanada 2019 Japan Cross-sectional 86,085 Pregnant women Self-reported Rhinitis NA Self-reported K-6 ≥ 5 1.2 (1.17–1.24) NA NA
Roxbury 2019 United States Cross-sectional 4320 Adults Self-reported Rhinitis/AR/NAR NA Self-reported PHQ-9 ≥ 10 1.42 (1.03–1.95)/0.9 (0.68–1.18)/1.99(1.34–2.96) Age, gender, race, obesity comorbid medical conditions, including self-reported history of asthma, coronary artery disease, heart attack, stroke, thyroid disease, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and trouble seeing; and self-rated general health condition (excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor) 2005–2006 (NHANES)
Kim 2016 Korea Cross-sectional study 11,154 > 19 y Self-reported AR NA Self-reported EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D) 2.585 (1.519–4.398)/severe 1.49 (0.894–2.481)
1.254 (0.897–1.752)
Age, sex, BMI, smoking status, alcohol use status, exercise status, region of residence, income, education, marital status, asthma, and atopic dermatitis KNHANES, 2011–2012
Nanda 2016 United States Prospective cohort 546 4–7 y Diagnosed AR 1 aeroallergen SPT positive+ Diagnosed BASC-2 3.2 (1.7–6.5) Gender, parental asthma, maternal education, BMI, and sleep disturbance 2001–2003, CCAAPS
Chen 2013 Taiwan Prospective cohort study 1673 12-15y Diagnosed AR ICD-9-CM Diagnosed ICD-9-CM 1.59 (1.02–2.50) Residence location and comorbid allergic diseases 1996–2000, NHIRD
Bedolla-Barajas 2017 Mexico Cross-sectional study 241 ≥ 18 and ≤ 50 Diagnosed AR/NAR   Diagnosed BDI-II > 13 2.5 (1.24–4.9)/3.3 (1.28–8.25) Sex 2012–2013
Valero 2015 Spain Cross-sectional study 670 > 18 y Self-reported Rhinitis NA Self-reported HAD 17.6% vs. 4.76% NA NA
Wei 2016 Taiwan Cohort 5075/44729 10–17 y Diagnosed Rhinitis ICD-9-CM Diagnosed ICD-9-CM 1.8 [1.29–2.50] Demographic data 1995–2000, NHIRD
Audino 2014 Italy Cross-sectional study 1283 10–13 y Self-reported Rhinitis NA Diagnosed TAD > 115 17.7% vs. 11.2% NA Palermo, Italy
Derebery 2008 United States Cohort 7024 > 18 y Self-reported Rhinitis NA Self-reported NA 17.2% (3831) vs. 8.3% (3193) NA 2004 NFO
Tas 2019 Turkey Cross-sectional 101/74 > 18 y Diagnosed AR Endoscopic nasal examination Self-reported TEMPS-A 23.8% (24/101) vs. 10.8% (8/74) NA 2017–2018
Shin 2018 Korea Cross-sectional study 15,441 > 19 y Self-reported AR NA Self-reported HRQoL 1.72 (1.08–2.73) Age, gender, educational level, marital status, household income, occupation, residential area, smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise status, sleep duration, and obesity; comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, stroke, ischemic heart disease, arthritis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, thyroid disease, liver cirrhosis, chronic renal failure, and depression; activity limitations; subjective health; and total cholesterol and triglyceride levels 2013–2015 KNHANES
Seo 2012 Korea Cross-sectional 76,937 Adolescents Self-reported AR NA Self-reported NA 1.14 (1.08–1.20) NA 2009 Korean Youth’s Risk Behavior Web-based Study
  1. AR allergic rhinitis, BASC-2 Behavior Assessment System for Children, Second Edition, BDI-II Beck Depression Inventory-II, CCAAPS Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study, CI confidence interval, EPOS European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression score, ICD-9-CM International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification, K-6 Kessler’s K-6 Non-Specific Psychological Distress Scale, KNHIS-NSC National Sample Cohort of the Korea National Health Insurance Service, TAD testing for depression and anxiety characteristics using the Depression and Anxiety in Youth Scale, KNHANES Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NA not applicable because only 1 study, NAR nonallergic rhinitis, NFO National Family Opinion, NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, NHIRD National Health Insurance Research Database, NHIS National Health Interview Survey, NHIRD National Health Insurance Research Database, NPHS National Population Health Survey, OR odds ratio, QOL quality of life, TEMPS-A Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, France, San Diego Auto-questionnaire