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Table 1 Classification of urticaria [1, 9]

From: Insights into urticaria in pediatric and adult populations and its management with fexofenadine hydrochloride




Spontaneous urticaria


Acute urticaria


Chronic urticaria

Infections (bacterial, viral, parasitic, fungal)


Food and additives


Drugs (e.g. NSAIDs; ACE)


Emotional stress


Autoimmune disorders

Inducible urticaria



Mechanical shearing force (rubbing or scratching)

Cold urticaria

Cold air; cold liquid; or cold solid

Delayed pressure urticaria

Vertical pressure

Heat urticaria

Local heat exposure

Solar urticaria

Ultraviolet or visible light

Vibratory angioedema

Vibratory forces

Other types

Aquagenic urticaria

Water; sweat; lacrimation

Cholinergic urticaria

Increasing core body temperature (e.g. exercise; fever)

Contact urticaria

Contact (e.g. foods; plant components; latex; drugs, cosmetics; textiles)

  1. ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs