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Table 1 Classification of urticaria [1, 9]

From: Insights into urticaria in pediatric and adult populations and its management with fexofenadine hydrochloride

Type Subtype Cause
Spontaneous urticaria
  Acute urticaria  
  Chronic urticaria Infections (bacterial, viral, parasitic, fungal)
   Food and additives
   Drugs (e.g. NSAIDs; ACE)
   Emotional stress
   Autoimmune disorders
Inducible urticaria
Physical Dermographism Mechanical shearing force (rubbing or scratching)
Cold urticaria Cold air; cold liquid; or cold solid
Delayed pressure urticaria Vertical pressure
Heat urticaria Local heat exposure
Solar urticaria Ultraviolet or visible light
Vibratory angioedema Vibratory forces
Other types Aquagenic urticaria Water; sweat; lacrimation
Cholinergic urticaria Increasing core body temperature (e.g. exercise; fever)
Contact urticaria Contact (e.g. foods; plant components; latex; drugs, cosmetics; textiles)
  1. ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs