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Table 3 The eczema-stratified association between periods of formula consumption and CMA

From: The association between early formula and reduced risk of cow’s milk allergy during the first three year of life: a Japanese cohort study

  Eczema (n = 14,451)     
  At 6 m At 12 m At 18 m At 24 m At 36 m
Formula consumption aRR (95% CI) aRR (95% CI)b aRR (95% CI) aRR (95% CI) aRR (95% CI)
Very early (0–3 months old) 1.51 (0.92–2.38) 1.15 (0.90–1.44) 1.11 (0.89–1.38) 1.01 (0.75–1.36) 0.95 (0.66–1.35)
Early (3–6 months old) 0.02 (0.00–0.07)a 0.14 (0.05–0.32) 0.23 (0.14–0.37) 0.36 (0.18–0.68) 0.43 (0.19–0.94)
Late (6–12 months old) 0.01 (0.00–0.04)a 0.56 (0.39–0.78) 0.74 (0.46–1.16) 0.95 (0.54–1.60)
  No eczema (n = 45,109)     
  At 6 m At 12 m At 18 m At 24 m At 36 m
Formula consumption aRR (95% CI)b aRR (95% CI) aRR (95% CI) aRR (95% CI) aRR (95% CI)
Very early (0–3 months old) 0.37 (0.12–0.88) 1.13 (0.83–1.51) 1.09 (0.83–1.40) 1.16 (0.82–1.63) 0.99 (0.65–1.50)
Early (3–6 months old) 0.03 (0.00–0.21)a 0.28 (0.12–0.58) 0.26 (0.15–0.44) 0.49 (0.25–0.93) 0.48 (0.21–1.05)
Late (6–12 months old) 0.01 (0.00–0.06)a 0.28 (0.17–0.44) 0.45 (0.24–0.80) 0.95 (0.47–1.82)
  1. The statuses of formula consumption (versus no consumption) and the following covariates were all included together in the model: sex, delivery mode, maternal allergic diseases, smoking and education, family income, early eczema, and older siblings as well as intake statuses of cow's milk protein before the evaluation time. Bold text represents statistical significance after adjustment for two comparisons of the stratified group (p < 0.025)
  2. aRR adjusted relative risk, CI confidence interval, CMA, cow's milk allergy
  3. aThe result was very low as expected from the definition of CMA. bUsing Firth's bias reduction method to resolve the issue of separation in regression analysis