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Table 5 Adjusted ORs (95 % CI) for the effect of socio-demographic and environmental determinants on the reporting of AR (n = 11,606) and of NAR (n = 11,525)

From: The gender, age and risk factor distribution differs in self-reported allergic and non-allergic rhinitis: a cross-sectional population-based study

  AR NAR
Smoking habits
 Non smoker 1.00 1.00
 Ex-smoker 0.90 (0.80;1.36) 1.20 (1.02;1.41)
 Current smoker 0.81 (0.72;0.91) 1.43 (1.24;1.66)
Educational level
 Elementary school graduate 1.00 1.00
 Middle school graduate 1.04 (0.80;1.36) 1.17 (0.84;1.63)
 High school 1.34 (1.04;1.73) 1.11 (0.80;1.53)
 College/university 1.49 (1.15;1.95) 1.01 (0.72;1.42)
Geographical area
 Central and Southern Italy 1.00 1.00
 Northern Italy 0.88 (0.80;0.97) 0.55 (0.18;1.70)
Residential area
 City center 1.00 1.00
 Suburban area 0.91 (0.81;1.01) 0.85 (0.74;0.98)
 Rural area 0.91 (0.77;1.08) 0.74 (0.59;0.92)
Presence of industrial plants near home
 No 1.00 1.00
 Yes 1.10 (0.98;1.25) 1.20 (1.02;1.41)
Intensity of car traffic near home
 Occasional/none 1.00 1.00
 Frequent/constant 0.95 (0.83;1.08) 0.96 (0.81;1.13)
Intensity of truck traffic near home
 Occasional/none 1.00 1.00
 Frequent/constant 1.03 (0.92;1.14) 1.10 (0.96;1.28)
Current asthma
 No 1.00 1.00
 Yes 6.85 (5.83;8.05) 1.07 (0.85;1.35)
Doctor-diagnosed eczema
 No 1.00 1.00
 Yes 2.08 (1.84;2.34) 1.05 (0.89;1.25)
  1. Adjusted for all the variables included in the table plus gender, age class, centre-specific percentile rank of cumulative response, type of contact (postal waves and telephone interview) and season when the questionnaire was filled in. An interaction effect was found between gender and age class on NAR (p = 0.0021), and the model for NAR is adjusted for this interaction effect. ORs that are significantly different from 1 are reported in italics (p < 0.05)