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Table 2 The Jeffrey Modell Foundations’ 10 warning signs of primary immune deficiency [23]

From: Primary immunodeficiency

Warning signs in children
 1. ≥ 4 new ear infections within 1 year
 2. ≥ 2 serious sinus infections within 1 year
 3. ≥ 2 months on antibiotics with little effect
 4. ≥ 2 pneumonias within 1 year
 5. Failure of an infant to gain weight or grow normally
 6. Recurrent, deep skin or organ abscesses
 7. Persistent thrush in mouth or fungal infection on skin
 8. Need for IV antibiotics to clear infections
 9. ≥ 2 deep-seated infections including septicemia
 10. A family history of PID
Warning signs in adults
 1. ≥ 2 new ear infections within 1 year
 2. ≥ 2 new sinus infections within 1 year, in the absence of allergy
 3. 1 pneumonia per year for > 1 year
 4. Chronic diarrhea with weight loss
 5. Recurrent viral infections (colds, herpes, warts, condyloma)
 6. Recurrent need for IV antibiotics to clear infections
 7. Recurrent, deep abscesses of the skin or internal organs
 8. Persistent thrush or fungal infection on skin or elsewhere
 9. Infection with normally harmless tuberculosis-like bacteria
 10. A family history of PID
  1. Adapted from [23]