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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Characterization of tenascin-C as a novel biomarker for asthma: utility of tenascin-C in combination with periostin or immunoglobulin E

  Total GINA step 1–3 GINA step 4 + 5 P value
n = 126 n = 45 n = 81
Sex (M/F), n (%) 43 (34.1)/83 (65.9) 21 (46.7)/24 (53.3) 22 (27.2)/59 (72.8) 0.032*
Age (years) 53.91 ± 15.86 55.47 ± 15.66 53.05 ± 16.01 0.415
Age at asthma onset (years) 35.08 ± 22.05 36.87 ± 22.46 34.09 ± 21.90 0.437
Duration of asthma (years) 18.83 ± 15.95 18.60 ± 17.20 18.96 ± 15.32 0.613
BMI (kg/m2) 24.00 ± 4.88 23.30 ± 4.08 24.38 ± 5.26 0.317
Smoking history (never/ex/current), n (%) 79 (62.7)/42 (33.3)/5 (4.0) 20 (44.4)/23 (51.1)/2 (4.4) 59 (72.8)/19 (23.4)/3 (3.7) 0.006*
Pack year smoking history (pack year) 5.63 ± 10.79 9.00 ± 13.74 3.75 ± 8.25 0.003*
Atopic predisposition, n (%) 99 (78.6) 33 (73.3) 66 (81.5) 0.365
AERD, n (%) 12 (9.5) 1 (2.2) 11 (13.6) 0.055
Atopic dermatitis, n (%) 27 (21.4) 10 (22.2) 17 (21.0) 1.000
Allergic rhinitis, n (%) 66 (52.4) 24 (53.3) 42 (51.9) 1.000
Chronic sinusitis, n (%) 38 (30.2) 13 (28.9) 25 (30.9) 0.843
Daily dose of ICS (FP equivalent dose, µg) 584.13 ± 383.49 177.78 ± 92.05 809.88 ± 283.99 < 0.001*
Daily dose of OCS (PSL equivalent dose, mg) 0.35 ± 1.41 0.00 ± 0.00 0.55 ± 1.73 0.014*
ACT score, n = 125 23.20 ± 2.82 24.29 ± 1.47 22.59 ± 3.20 < 0.001*
FeNO (ppb) 55.04 ± 43.69 65.31 ± 53.19 49.34 ± 36.53 0.037*
Peripheral neutrophils (cells/μL) 4022.36 ± 1492.54 3696.30 ± 1115.92 4203.51 ± 1644.02 0.113
Peripheral eosinophils (cells/μL) 263.54 ± 236.05 231.11 ± 180.79 281.55 ± 261.08 0.775
Serum IgE (IU/mL) 616.37 ± 1686.39 467.19 ± 718.39 699.24 ± 2034.77 0.731
Th2-high, n (%) 53 (42.1) 21 (46.7) 32 (39.5) 0.457
Serum periostin (ng/mL) 87.65 ± 34.49 94.62 ± 30.83 83.78 ± 35.96 0.012*
Serum TNC (ng/mL) 39.49 ± 25.18 30.95 ± 16.69 44.23 ± 27.82 0.002*
FVC (L) 3.22 ± 0.95 3.51 ± 0.87 3.06 ± 0.96 0.004*
%FVC (predicted, %) 103.06 ± 16.22 107.16 ± 14.69 100.80 ± 16.59 0.013*
FEV1 (L) 2.38 ± 0.79 2.55 ± 0.70 2.29 ± 0.82 0.079
%FEV1 (predicted, %) 90.98 ± 18.37 93.80 ± 15.93 89.41 ± 19.51 0.201
FEV1/FVC ratio (%) 73.46 ± 10.30 72.56 ± 8.29 73.97 ± 11.28 0.189
PEF (L/s) 7.23 ± 2.06 7.74 ± 1.94 6.95 ± 2.08 0.037*
%PEF (predicted, %) 103.28 ± 21.12 105.46 ± 19.00 102.07 ± 22.23 0.389
MMF (L) 1.95 ± 1.07 1.93 ± 0.95 1.95 ± 1.13 0.951
%MMF (predicted, %) 58.93 ± 27.49 57.98 ± 22.69 59.46 ± 29.95 0.773
  1. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation unless otherwise indicated
  2. Comparisons performed by Student’s t test, the Mann–Whitney U test, the Chi square test, and Fisher’s exact test as appropriate
  3. ACT asthma control test, AERD aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease, BMI body mass index, FeNO fractional exhaled nitric oxide, FEV1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FP fluticasone propionate, FVC forced vital capacity, GINA Global Initiative for Asthma, ICS inhaled corticosteroid, IgE immunoglobulin E, MMF mid-maximal flow rate, OCS oral corticosteroids, PEF peak expiratory flow, PSL prednisolone, Th2 T-helper cell type 2, TNC tenascin-C
  4. *P < 0.05, GINA treatment steps 1–3 group versus GINA treatment steps 4 + 5
  5. Th2-high: total IgE level of more than 100 IU/mL and a peripheral blood eosinophil count of 0.14 × 109 cells/L or more
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