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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics and wheezing episode

From: Risk factors and prognosis of recurrent wheezing in Chinese young children: a prospective cohort study

  Transient wheezing (n = 14) Persistent wheezing (n = 54) Late-onset wheezing (n = 17) χ 2 p
Age at recruitment (mean ± SD) 1.32 ± 0.62 2.61 ± 1.44 4.57 ± 0.79
Age at follow-up (mean ± SD) 4.95 ± 0.70 6.28 ± 1.26 8.19 ± 0.75
Gender [n (%)]     0.62 0.734
 Male 11 (78.6) 43 (79.6) 12 (70.6)   
 Female 3 (21.4) 11 (20.4) 5 (29.4)   
Birth history [n (%)]a     3.60 0.134
 Full-term 11 (78.6) 47 (87.0) 17 (100.0)   
 Preterm 3 (21.4) 7 (13.0) 0 (0.0)   
Recruitment season [n (%)]a     1.24 0.891
 Spring 9 (64.3) 26 (48.1) 8 (47.1)   
 Autumn 3 (21.4) 16 (29.6) 5 (29.4)   
 Winter 2 (14.3) 12 (22.2) 4 (23.5)   
Siblings [n (%)]a      
 No-siblings 8 (57.1) 37 (68.5) 14 (82.4) 2.32 0.321
Breastfed history [n (%)]a      
 Yes 14 (100.0) 50 (92.6) 15 (88.2) 1.39 0.496
Childcare [n (%)]a      
 Yes 0 (0.0) 1 (1.9) 1 (5.9) 1.54 0.605
Pets kept when the child was born [n (%)]a      
 Yes 2 (14.3) 8 (14.8) 2 (11.8) 0.17 1.000
Current pet ownership [n (%)]a      
 Yes 2 (14.3) 6 (11.1) 2 (11.8) 0.40 0.892
Mother smoking history [n (%)]a      
 Yes 1 (7.1) 1 (1.9) 1 (5.9) 2.14 0.300
Other family member smoking history [n (%)]a      
 Yes 9 (64.3) 31 (57.4) 10 (58.8) 0.25 0.949
Onset age of wheezing (months)b 6.0 (5.8, 12.0) 12.0 (6.0, 24.0) 36.0 (36.0, 48.0) 43.66 < 0.001
Current wheezing episode at recruitmentb 4 (3, 4) 4 (3, 5) 4 (2, 6) 0.16 0.925
Current wheezing episode at follow-upb 0 (0, 0)c 0 (0, 1) 0 (0, 1) 0.98 0.323
  1. Italic values indicate the significance of p value (p < 0.05)
  2. aFisher’s exact test was used for groups’ comparison
  3. bVariables were expressed as median (inter-quartile)
  4. cChildren in Transient wheezing group stopped wheezing symptom at follow-up