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Table 5 Ophthalmic agents available in Canada and the U.S. for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis [15]

From: A contemporary look at allergic conjunctivitis

Agents (brand name) Availabilitya OTC/Rx Year of market availabilityb Age indicationc Dosing schedule
Topical ocular vasoconstrictors
 Naphazoline hydrochloride Both OTC Established   Maximum QID, short term
 Tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride Both OTC Established   Maximum QID, short term
Ocular antihistamines
 Antazoline (only found in combination) Both OTC Before 1980 N/Ad QID
 Pheniramine (only found in combination) Both OTC Before 1980 N/Ad QID
 Emedastine 0.05% (Emadine®) [104] U.S. only Rx 1998 ˃ 3 years QID
Mast-cell stabilizers
 Lodoxamide 0.1% (Alomide®) [105] Both Rx 1992 ≥ 4 years QID
 Cromolyn sodium 2%[106, 107] Both OTC/Rx 1993 ≥ 5 years QID
Dual-activity agents
 Olopatadine 0.1% (Patanol®)[108] Both Rx 1998 ≥ 3 years BID
 Olopatadine 0.2% (Pataday®) [109] Both Rx 2011 ≥ 16 years Daily
 Olopatadine 0.7% (Pazeo®) [110] Both Rx 2017 ≥ 2 years Daily
 Ketotifen 0.025% (Zaditor®) [111, 112] Both Rx (OTC in U.S) 2000 ˃ 3 years BID to TID
 Ketotifen 0.025% preservative free U.S. only OTC 2000 ˃ 3 years BID to TID
 Bepotastine besilate 1.5% (Bepreve®)[113] Both Rx 2017 ≥ 3 years BID
 Alcaftadine 0.25% (Lastacaft®) [114] U.S. only Rx 2014
(U.S. only)
≥ 3 years Daily
 Epinastine 0.05% (Elestat®) [115] U.S. only Rx 2004
(U.S. only)
≥ 3 years BID
 Azelastine 0.05% (Optivar®) [116] U.S. only Rx 2009
(U.S. only)
˃ 3 years BID
Ophthalmic steroids (only some most commonly used in ocular allergy)
 Fluorometholone acetate 0.1% (FML®)e [117] Both Rx 1972 ˃ 2 years BIDf
 Prednisolone acetate 1.0% (Pred Forte®)e [118] Both Rx 1974 All ages BIDf
 Loteprednol etabonate 0.2% (Alrex®)[119] Both Rx 2009 ≥ 18 years QIDf
 Loteprednol etabonate 0.5% (Lotemax® (or Lotemax gel®))e [120] Both Rx 2009 ≥ 18 years QIDf
NSAIDs
 Diclofenac 0.1% (Voltaren Ophtha®)e [121] Both Rx 1991 ≥ 18 years QID
 Ketorolac 0.4% (Acular LS®) and 0.5% (Acular®)e [75] Both Rx 1992 (0.5%)
2004 (0.4%)
≥ 18 years QID
 Nepafenac 0.1% (Nevanac®)e [122] Both Rx 2008 ≥ 18 years TID
 Bromfenac 0.7% (Prolensa®)e [123] Both Rx 2015 ≥ 18 years Daily
  1. BID twice daily, N/A not available, NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, OTC over-the-counter, QID four times a day, Rx prescription, TID three times a day
  2. a“Both” indicates the agent is available in both Canada and U.S.
  3. bUnless otherwise stated, the year of market availability in Canada
  4. cFor agents that are available in both Canada and U.S., the age indication is based on the Canadian product monograph
  5. dInformation not available
  6. eOff-label use only in Canada; short term
  7. fOr according to the severity of symptoms/inflammation