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Table 2 Outcome variables by using Analyses of covariance (covariate = baseline values) of differences between baseline (t0) and follow-up (t1) for the Intervention Group and the Control Group

From: Effects of a 90-min educational intervention for patients with insect venom allergy: a prospective controlled pilot study

Outcome variables Intervention Group (IG) Control Group
(CG)
IG- CG p Effect size (r)
Estimated marginal means and 95% CI of differences (t1-t0) Estimated marginal means and 95% CI of differences (t1-t0) Estimated marginal means and 95% CI of differences
((IG t1-t0)—(CG t1-t0))
Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI)
Subjective self-assurancea 2.141 (1.71; 2.57) 1.049 (0.66; 1.44) 1.092 (0.50; 1.68) 0.001 0.457
Willingness to carry medicationb 0.112 (− 0.54; 0.77) 0.373 (− 0.22; 0.97)  − 0.261 (− 1.19; 0.63) 0.560 0.081
Depression (HADS)  − 0.511 (− 1.20; 0.18)  − 0.008 (− 0.64; 0.63)  − 0.503 (− 1.44; 0.44) 0.288 0.147
Anxiety (HADS)  − 0.543 (− 1.45; 0.37)  − 0.114 (− 0.95; 0.72)  − 0.429 (− 1.66; 0.81) 0.488 0.096
One-time WTPc 41.055 (− 294; 376.1) 275.815 (6.64; 545.0)  − 234.76 (− 667.91; 198.4) 0.277 0.198
Knowledge quiz 0.555 (− 0.03; 1.14) 0.138 (− 0.40; 0.67) 0.417 (− 0.38; 1.21) 0.288 0.144
Simulation test 3.673 (2.86; 4.49) 2.106 (1.37; 2.84) 1.567 (0.43; 2.71) 0.008 0.357
  1. CI: confidence interval. Effect size: > 0.1 weak effect, > 0.25 medium effect, > 0.4 strong effect. HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. €: Euro. t0: baseline. t1: follow-up. Significant findings are highlighted in italics
  2. aSubjective self-assurance in using the emergency medication
  3. bWillingness to always carry the emergency medication
  4. cAbsolute one-time willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a complete cure