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Table 2 Stratified analysis of the associations between rhinitis and depression

From: Cumulative evidence for association of rhinitis and depression

Variables Allergic rhinitis and depression p Rhinitis and depression p
Studies OR (95% CI) I2 (p-value) Studies OR (95% CI) I2 (p-value)
Total 9 1.54 (1.24, 1.90) 78 (< 0.05)   6 1.86 (1.32, 2.62) 95.1 (< 0.05)  
Study location
 Europe 1 2.65 (1.12, 6.28) NA < 0.05 2 2.61 (1.07, 6.37) 89.2 (< 0.05) < 0.05
 Unites States 3 1.40 (0.88, 2.21) 85.1 (< 0.05)   2 1.85 (1.15, 2.96) 86.1 (< 0.05)  
 Asia 4 1.60 (1.09, 2.33) 78.3 (< 0.05)   2 1.42 (0.96, 2.10) 82.5 (< 0.05)  
 Other countries 1 2.5 (1.26, 4.97) NA   0 NA NA  
Study design
 Cohort 2 2.15 (1.09, 4.25) 65.4 (> 0.05) < 0.05 2 2.13 (1.71, 2.66) 42.9 (> 0.05) > 0.05
 Cross-sectional 7 1.42 (1.14, 1.75) 76.9 (< 0.05)   4 1.75 (1.19, 2.55) 90 (< 0.05)  
Sample size
 ≥ 10,000 4 1.41 (1.12, 1.78) 79.1 (< 0.05) < 0.05 2 1.42 (0.96, 2.10) 82.5 (< 0.05) < 0.05
 < 10,000 5 1.86 (1.08, 3.18) 80.6 (< 0.05)   4 2.10 (1.51, 2.90) 81.9 (< 0.05)  
Sample population
 Adult 6 1.63 (1.17, 2.26) 75.7 (< 0.05) > 0.05 4 1.93 (1.21, 3.10) 96.7 (< 0.05) > 0.05
 < 18 years 3 1.64 (0.98, 2.77) 81.9 (< 0.05)   2 1.74 (1.42, 2.13) 0 (0.81)  
Ascertainment of depression
 Self-report 6 1.34 (1.09, 1.65) 76.4 (< 0.05) < 0.05 4 1.93 (1.21, 3.10) 96.7 (< 0.05) > 0.05
 Diagnosed 3 2.19 (1.42, 3.38) 38.3 (> 0.05)   2 1.74 (1.42, 2.13) 0 (0.81)  
Ascertainment of rhinitis
 Self-report 5 1.29 (1.05, 1.57) 77.4% (< 0.05) < 0.05 5 1.88 (1.27, 2.77) 95.9 (< 0.05) > 0.05
 Diagnosed 4 2.20 (1.56, 3.08) 14.3% (> 0.05)   1 1.8 (1.29, 2.51) NA  
Study quality
 NOS score > 5 6 1.6 (1.17, 2.18) 77.3% (< 0.05) > 0.05 3 1.39 (1.09, 1.78) 70.4 (< 0.05) < 0.05
 NOS score ≤ 5 3 1.79 (0.93, 1.90) 76.8% (< 0.05)   3 2.37 (1.66, 3.39) 80.1 (< 0.05)  
Adjusted for confounding factors
 Minimal (≤ 7 factors) 6 1.56 (1.22, 1.99) 79.8 (< 0.05) > 0.05 5 1.97 (1.32, 2.93) 96.1 (< 0.05) < 0.05
 Substantial (≥ 8 factors) 3 1.54 (0.81, 2.94) 86.2 (< 0.05)   1 1.42 (1.03, 1.95) NA  
Adjusted for age
 Yes 4 1.43 (1.0, 2.03) 79.6% (< 0.05) < 0.05 1 1.42 (1.03, 1.95) NA < 0.05
 No 5 1.9 (1.2, 3.01) 79.4% (< 0.05)   5 1.97 (1.32, 2.93) 96.1 (< 0.05)  
Adjusted for sex
 Yes 6 1.71 (1.21, 2.42) 79.7% (< 0.05) > 0.05 1 1.42 (1.03, 1.95) NA < 0.05
 No 3 1.44 (0.97, 2.15) 65% (> 0.05)   5 1.97 (1.32, 2.93) 96.1 (< 0.05)  
Adjusted for asthma
 Yes 4 1.78 (0.97, 3.24) 85.7% (< 0.05) > 0.05 1 1.42 (1.03, 1.95) NA < 0.05
 No 5 1.41 (1.14, 1.75) 71.3% (< 0.05)   5 1.97 (1.32, 2.93) 96.1 (< 0.05)  
Adjusted for atopic dermatitis
 Yes 3 1.86 (1.41, 2.46) 2.6% (> 0.05) < 0.05 0 NA NA NA
 No 6 1.38 (1.09, 1.74) 78.6% (< 0.05)   6 1.86 (1.32, 2.62) 95.1 (< 0.05)  
Adjusted for household income
 Yes 3 1.69 (1.15, 2.49 68.5% (< 0.05) > 0.05 0 NA NA NA
 No 6 1.55 (1.12, 2.13) 78% (< 0.05)   6 1.86 (1.32, 2.62) 95.1 (< 0.05)  
Adjusted for comorbidities
 Yes 3 1.31 (0.83, 2.05) 78% (< 0.05) > 0.05 1 1.42 (1.03, 1.95) NA < 0.05
 No 6 1.73 (1.31, 2.3) 82.4% (< 0.05)   5 1.97 (1.32, 2.93) 96.1 (< 0.05)  
  1. A P-value <0.05 was considered significant